ChristianAnswers.Net WebBible Encyclopedia
also known as: Israel
Meaning: one who follows on another’s heels; a supplanter
This was the name of at least 2 biblical men, both named in the genealogy between Adam and Jesus Christ.
Adam ➤ Seth ➤ Enos ➤ Cainan ➤ Mahalaleel ➤ Jared ➤ Enoch ➤ Methuselah ➤ Lamech ➤ Noah ➤ Shem ➤ Arpachshad ➤ Shelah ➤ Eber ➤ Peleg ➤ Reu ➤ Serug ➤ Nahor ➤ Terah ➤ Abraham ➤ Isaac ➤ JACOB
Jacob, the son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham), was born probably at Lahai-roi, when his father was 59 and his grandfather Abraham was 159 years old. Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his brother Esau became an enterprising hunter. His dealing with Esau, however, showed much mean selfishness and cunning (Genesis 25:29-34).
Trip to visit Uncle (in-law) Laban in Mesopotamia, and an unexpected 20 year stay
Soon after his acquisition of his father's blessing (Genesis 27), Jacob became conscious of his guilt; and afraid of the anger of Esau, at the suggestion of Rebekah, Isaac sent him away to Haran, 400 miles or more, to find a wife among his cousins, the family of Laban, the Syrian, his father Isaac’s brother-in-law (Genesis 28). There he met his future wife Rachel (Genesis 29).
Laban would not consent to give him his daughter in marriage till he had served 7 years; but to Jacob these years “seemed but a few days, for the love he had to her.” But when the 7 years were expired, Laban craftily deceived Jacob, and gave him his daughter Leah. Another 7 years of service had to be completed probably before he obtained the beloved Rachel. But “life-long sorrow, disgrace, and trials, in the retributive providence of God, followed as a consequence of this double union.”
He then set out with his family and property “to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan” (Genesis 31). Laban was angry when he heard that Jacob had set out on his journey, and pursued after him, overtaking him in 7 days. The meeting was of a painful kind. After much recrimination and reproach directed against Jacob, Laban is at length pacified, and taking an affectionate farewell of his daughters, returns to his home in Padanaram. And now all connection of the Israelites with Mesopotamia is at an end.
Encounters with angels
Soon after parting with Laban, he is met by a company of angels, as if to greet him on his return and welcome him back to the Land of Promise (32:1-2). He called the name of the place Mahanaim, i.e., “the double camp,” probably his own camp and that of the angels.
The vision of angels was the counterpart of that he had formerly seen at Bethel, when, 20 years before, the weary, solitary traveller, on his way to Padan-aram, saw the angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top reached to heaven (28:12).
Return to his twin brother Esau, and wrestling with the LORD
He now hears with dismay of the approach of his brother Esau with a band of 400 men to meet him. In great agony of mind he prepares for the worst. He feels that he must now depend only on God, and he betakes himself to him in earnest prayer, and sends on before him a munificent present to Esau, “a present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob.”
Jacob’s family were then transported across the Jabbok; but he himself remained behind, spending the night in communion with God. While thus engaged, there appeared one in the form of a man who wrestled with him. In this mysterious contest Jacob prevailed, and as a memorial of it his name was changed to Israel (wrestler with God); and the place where this occured he called Penuel (Peniel), for he said,
After this anxious night, Jacob went on his way, halting, mysteriously weakened by the conflict, but strong in the assurance of the divine favor. Esau came forth and met him; but his spirit of revenge was appeased, and the brothers met as friends, and during the remainder of their lives they maintained friendly relations.
More Divine direction and trials
After a brief sojourn at Succoth, Jacob moved forward and pitched his tent near Shechem, 33:18; but at length, under divine directions, he moved to Bethel, where he made an altar unto God (35:6-7), and where God appeared to him and renewed the Abrahamic covenant.
While journeying from Bethel to Ephrath (the Canaanitish name of Bethlehem), Rachel died in giving birth to her 2nd son Benjamin (35:16-20), 15 or 16 years after the birth of Joseph. He then reached the old family residence at Mamre, to be with his dying father Isaac.
Jacob was soon after this deeply grieved by the loss of his beloved son Joseph through the jealousy of his brothers (37:33). Then follows the story of the famine, and the successive goings down into Egypt to buy corn (42), which led to the discovery of the long-lost Joseph, and the patriarch's going down with all his household, numbering about 70 souls (Exodus 1:5; Deuteronomy 10:22; Acts 7:14), to sojourn in the land of Goshen.
Here Jacob, “after being strangely tossed about on a very rough ocean, found at last a tranquil harbor, where all the best affections of his nature were gently exercised and largely unfolded” (Genesis 48).
His death and long delayed burial
At length, the end of his checkered course drew nigh, and Jacob summoned his sons to his bedside that he may bless them. Among his last words, he repeats the story of his beloved Rachel’s death, although 40 years had passed away since that event took place, as tenderly as if it had happened only yesterday; and when “he had made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost” (49:33).
His body was embalmed and carried with great pomp into the land of Canaan, and buried beside his wife Leah in the cave of Machpelah, according to his dying charge. There, probably, his embalmed body remains to this day (50:1-13). (See HEBRON.)