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in the New Testament, the instrument of crucifixion, and hence used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Ephesians 2:16; Hebrews 12:2; 1 Corinthians 1:17,18; Galatians 5:11; 6:12,14; Philippians 3:18)

The word “cross” is also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matthew 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21).

The forms in which the cross is represented are these:

  1. The crux simplex (I), a “single piece without transom.”

  2. The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew’s cross.

  3. The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony’s cross.

  4. The crux immissa (t), or Latin cross, which was the kind of cross on which our Savior died. Above our Lord’s head, on the projecting beam, was placed the “title.” (See CRUCIFIXION.)

After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great (A.D. 313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of Christianity. He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, “In hoc signo vinces,” i.e., By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him to take for his standard the sign of this cross. In this form a new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and borne by the Roman armies. It remained the standard of the Roman army till the downfall of the Western empire. It bore the embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e., the first two Greek letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and Omega. (See Alpha.)


  • What kind of cross was Jesus crucified on? Answer
  • What is crucifixion? Answer
  • humiliation of Christ
  • Why do all four Gospels contain different versions of the inscription on the Cross? Answer
  • How did Jesus Christ die? Answer
  • What does the inscription “INRI” mean? Answer
  • If Jesus is God, how could he die? If Jesus died on the cross, then how can he be alive today? Answer

  • The Resurrection of Jesus Christ—provides questions and answers for skeptics, kids’ activities, and valuable resources.