ChristianAnswers.Net WebBible Encyclopedia
Versions of the Bible
translations of the Holy Scriptures
The word “version” is not found in the Bible, but this encyclopedia frequently references various ancient and modern versions of the Bible.
Editor’s Note: This article is not yet completed; it is a work in progress.
1388 A.D.: Wycliffe’s Bible (Wyckliffe)—The history of the English versions begins properly with Wycliffe; it is to him that the honor belongs of having first translated the whole Bible into English. This version was made from the Vulgate, and renders Genesis 3:15 after that Version, “She shall trede thy head.”
1525-1534: Tyndale Bible—William Tyndale’s translation
He was martyred by the Roman Catholic Church, who banned his work and burned copies of his translations.
1535-1553: Coverdale Bible—published by Miles Coverdale
1537: Matthew Bible or Matthew’s Version—published by Hebrew and Syriac scholar John Rogers, using the pen name “Thomas Matthew,” to avoid execution
He was the first martyr under the reign of Catholic Queen Mary I of England—“Bloody Mary.”
This was properly the first King James Version, Henry the 8th having ordered a copy of it to be received by every church. This took place in less than a year after Bible scholar William Tyndale was martyred for the crime of translating the Scriptures.
1539: Taverner’s Bible—published by Richard Taverner as a minor revision of Matthew’s Bible
1539: The Great Bible—so called because of its large size
It was also called Cranmer’s Bible.
In the strict sense, the “Great Bible” is “the only King James Version; for the Bishops’ Bible and the King James Version never had the formal sanction of royal authority.”
1560: Geneva Bible—all of the Old Testament was translated directly from Hebrew
This Bible was the primary version used by John Knox (minister and theologian), John Bunyan (Pilgrim’s Progress), William Shakespeare and most English-speaking Protestants in the 1500s.
1568: Bishops’ Bible—produced under the authority of the Church of England and later revised in 1572 and 1602
This translation was done by Archbishop of Canterbury Matthew Parker, and other bishops.
1582, 1610: Douay–Rheims Bible (DR)—published under Roman Catholic auspices, using “a densely Latinate vocabulary, to the extent of being in places unreadable.” It was later revised by Richard Challoner (a Roman Cathloic bishop). The result is known as the Douay-Rheims Bible (Challoner Revision) (DRC).
1611: King James Version (KJV or AV—Authorized Version)
1885: Revised King James Version (RKJV) or simply Revised Version (RV)—a revised version of the King James Bible
1982: New King James Version (NKJV)—a revised version of the King James Bible
“Commissioned in 1975 by Thomas Nelson Publishers, 130 respected Bible scholars, church leaders, and lay Christians worked for 7 years to create a completely new, modern translation of Scripture, yet one that would retain the purity and stylistic beauty of the original King James. With unyielding faithfulness to the original Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic texts, the translation applies the most recent research in archaeology, linguistics, and textual studies.”
1890: Darby Bible (DARBY or DBY)—also known as The Holy Scriptures: A New Translation from the Original Languages
Formerly an Anglican priest and very well educated, John Nelson Darby was one of the leaders of a conservative, reformed, evangelical, sola scriptura, dispensational, pre-Trib, independent, non-denominational movement that departed from the state church of England (Anglicanism) in the 1800s. His English translation was used as the basis for various foreign language translations.
- 1901: American Standard Version (ASV)
“The American Standard Version, which was also known as The American Revision of 1901, is rooted in the work begun in 1870 to revise the Authorized Version/King James Bible of 1611. This revision project eventually produced the Revised Version (RV). An invitation was extended to American religious leaders for scholars to work on the RV project. In 1871, thirty scholars were chosen by Philip Schaff. The denominations represented on the American committee were the Baptist, Congregationalist, Dutch Reformed, Friends, Methodist, Episcopal, Presbyterian, Protestant Episcopal, and Unitarian. These scholars began work in 1872.” —Wikipedia text, July 7, 2017
1952: Revised Standard Version (RSV or ERV)—a revision of the ASV
The Revised Standard Version of the Bible (RSV) is an authorized revision of the American Standard Version, published in 1901, which was a revision of the King James Version, published in 1611.
The King James Version has with good reason been termed “the noblest monument of English prose.” Its revisers in 1881 expressed admiration for “its simplicity, its dignity, its power, its happy turns of expression … the music of it cadences, and the felicities of its rhythm.” It entered, as no other book has, into the making of the personal character and the public institutions of the English-speaking peoples.
The Revised Standard Version of the Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, was published on September 30, 1952, and has met with wide acceptance.
The Revised Standard Version Bible seeks to preserve all that is best in the English Bible as it has been known and used through the years. It is intended for use in public and private worship, not merely for reading and instruction. We have resisted the temptation to use phrases that are merely current usage, and have sought to put the message of the Bible in simple, enduring words that are worthy to stand in the great Tyndale-King James tradition. We are glad to say, with the King James translators: “Truly (good Christian Reader) we never thought from the beginning, that we should need to make a new Translation, nor yet to make of a bad one a good one… but to make a good one better.”
2001: English Standard Version (ESV)—a revision of the RSV
1971, 1995: New American Standard Bible (NASB)—a revision of the ASV
This translation is one of the most trusted for accuracy among conservative, reformed evangelical pastors and scholars—“revealing what the original manuscripts actually say—not merely what the translator believes they mean.”
“While preserving the literal accuracy of the 1901 ASV, the NASB has sought to render grammar and terminology in contemporary English. Special attention has been given to the rendering of verb tenses to give the English reader a rendering as close as possible to the sense of the original Greek and Hebrew texts. In 1995, the text of the NASB was updated for greater understanding and smoother reading. …The NASB update continues the NASB’s tradition of literal translation of the original Greek and Hebrew without compromise. Changes in the text have been kept within the strict parameters set forth by the Lockman Foundation’s Fourfold Aim.”
“The translators and consultants who have contributed to the NASB update are conservative Bible scholars who have doctorates in Biblical languages, theology, or other advanced degrees. They represent a variety of denominational backgrounds.”
1978, 2011 (revised): New International Version (NIV)
“The New International Version (NIV) is a completely original translation of the Bible developed by more than one hundred scholars working from the best available Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts. The initial vision for the project was provided by a single individual—an engineer working with General Electric in Seattle by the name of Howard Long.”
1995: God’s Word (GW)
2004: Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
2011: International Standard Version (ISV)
2011: Common English Bible (CEB)
2011, 2014: Names of God Bible (NOG)
2014: Modern English Version (MEV)
2017: Christian Standard Bible (CSB)
After the return from the Captivity, the Jews, no longer familiar with the old Hebrew, required that their Scriptures should be translated for them into the Chaldaic or Aramaic language and interpreted. These translations and paraphrases were at first oral, but they were afterwards reduced to writing, and thus targums, i.e., “versions” or “translations”, have come down to us. The chief of these are…
The Onkelos Targum, i.e., the targum of Akelas = Aquila, a targum so called to give it greater popularity by comparing it with the Greek translation of Aquila mentioned below. This targum originated about the second century after Christ.
The targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel comes next to that of Onkelos in respect of age and value. It is more a paraphrase on the Prophets, however, than a translation. Both of these targums issued from the Jewish school which then flourished at Babylon.
280 B.C. through 200 or 150 B.C.: SEPTUAGINT—The Septuagint is oldest of these, and is sometimes refered to as the “LXX” (the 70).
The origin of this, the most important of all the versions, is involved in much obscurity. It derives its name from the popular notion that 72 translators were employed on it by the direction of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, and that it was accomplished in 72 days, for the use of the Jews residing in that country. There is no historical warrant for this notion.
It is, however, an established fact that this version was made at Alexandria; that it was begun about 280 B.C., and finished about 200 or 150 B.C.; that it was the work of a number of translators who differed greatly both in their knowledge of Hebrew and of Greek; and that from the earliest times it has borne the name of “The Septuagint”, i.e., The Seventy.
This version, with all its defects, must be of the greatest interest as…
preserving evidence for the text far more ancient than the oldest Hebrew manuscripts
the means by which the Greek Language was wedded to Hebrew thought
the source of the great majority of quotations from the Old Testament by writers of the New Testament.
The New Testament manuscripts fall into two divisions, Uncials, written in Greek capitals, with no distinction at all between the different words, and very little even between the different lines; and Cursives, in small Greek letters, and with divisions of words and lines. The change between the two kinds of Greek writing took place about the 10th century. Only 5 manuscripts of the New Testament approaching to completeness are more ancient than this dividing date.
300s A.D.: SINAITIC MANUSCRIPT (Codex Sinaiticus) (the Bible in Greek)—see Sinaiticus Codex
300s A.D.: VATICAN MANUSCRIPT—see Vaticanus Codex
400s A.D. or earlier: EPHRAEM MANUSCRIPT—so called because it was written over the writings of Ephraem, a Syrian theological author, a practice very common in the days when writing materials were scarce and dear
It is believed that it belongs to the 5th century, and perhaps a slightly earlier period of it than the manuscript A.
400s A.D.: ALEXANDRIAN MANUSCRIPT—Though brought to this country by Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, as a present to Charles I, it is believed that it was written, not in that capital, but in Alexandria; whence its title. It is now dated in the 5th century A.D.
400s A.D.: MANUSCRIPT OF BEZA (Codex Bezae)—so called because it belonged to the reformer Theodore Beza (Théodore de Bèze or de Besze), who found it in the monastery/church of St. Irenaeus at Lyons, France, in 1562 A.D. He was a disciple of John Calvin.
This manuscript is preserved at the University of Cambridge and is available in digital form.
OLD LATIN—A Latin version of the Scriptures, called the “Old Latin,” which originated in North Africa, was in common use in the time of Tertullian (A.D. 150). Of this there appear to have been various copies or recensions made. That made in Italy, and called the Itala, was reckoned the most accurate. This translation of the Old Testament seems to have been made not from the original Hebrew, but from the Septuagint.
This version became greatly corrupted by repeated transcription, and, to remedy the evil, Jerome (A.D. 329-420) was requested by Damasus, the bishop of Rome, to undertake a complete revision of it.
- VULGATE—This version met with opposition, at first, but was at length, in the 7th century, recognized as the “Vulgate” version.
It appeared in a printed from about A.D. 1455, the first book that ever issued from the press. The Council of Trent (1546) declared it “authentic.” It subsequently underwent various revisions, but that which was executed (1592) under the sanction of Pope Clement VIII was adopted as the basis of all subsequent editions. It is regarded as the sacred original in the Roman Catholic Church. All modern European versions have been more or less influenced by the Vulgate.
This version reads ipsa instead of ipse in Genesis 3:15, “She shall bruise thy head.”
Other ancient versions
There are several other ancient versions which are of importance to Biblical critics, but which we need not mention particularly, such as the…
- 300s A.D.
: Ethiopic—from the Septuagint
- 300s A.D.
: 2 Egyptian versions—the Memphitic, circulated in Lower Egypt, and the Thebaic, designed for Upper Egypt, both translated from the Greek
- 300s A.D.
: Gothic, translated into the German language, but with the Greek alphabet, by Ulphilas (died 388 A.D.), of which only fragments of the Old Testament remain
- about 400 A.D.: Armenian
- 800s A.D.: Slavonic—for ancient Moravia
Article Version: September 9, 2017