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a foreigner, or person born in another country, and therefore not entitled to the rights and privileges of the country where he resides
Among the Hebrews, there were two classes of aliens.
Both of these classes were to enjoy, under certain conditions, the same rights as other citizens (Lev. 19:33-34; Deut. 10:19). They might be naturalized and permitted to enter into the congregation of the Lord by submitting to circumcision and abandoning idolatry (Deut. 23:3-8).
This term is used in Eph. 2:12 to denote persons who have no interest in Christ (“ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world”).